PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To appraise recent advances in our knowledge of the severe genetic HDL deficiency disorder, Tangier disease. RECENT FINDINGS: While Tangier disease can cause premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), new evidence suggests that heterozygous ABCA1 variant carriers are also at increased risk. Advances have been made in the study of the neurological abnormalities observed in Tangier disease, both in their assessment and the identification of potential new therapies. SUMMARY: Tangier disease is an extremely rare condition and, as such, the published literature around its range of clinical manifestations, including peripheral neuropathy, premature ASCVD and platelet abnormalities is limited. Patient registries may assist in this regard.