House dust mites provide well-characterized proteins to study human responses to inhaled antigens. Even in the absence of allergy they induce a high frequency of T cell precursors. The healthy response manifests by T cell proliferation and Th1 cytokines with little antibody. Responses of allergic people include Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 antibodies. Regulatory cells limit effector responses in healthy people. About half the IgE and IgG antibodies bind the group I and 2 allergens and 30% bind the group 4, 5, and 7 allergens. Although HLA independent, the recog nition of the (group I allergen shows an immunodominant region and a T cell receptor bias. The major allergens are not produced in higher amounts than many of the poorly non-allergenic proteins. The non-allergenic mite ferritin antigen shows high T cell proliferative responses with mixed cytokine production.