The aim of this review was to assess relevant global literature on capped-fee (CF) and fee-for-service (FFS) payment models as used by public dental services. Research data were assessed through the PRISMA check list and sourced from MEDLINE, PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, and other methods. The inclusion criteria were peer reviewed articles published between 2004 and 2020 and (i) other countries’ health systems that were evaluated in contrast to Australia; (ii) care provided to individuals; (iii) payment models for private services that were the same as Australian government policy (CF and FFS); and (iv) care provided by dentists. We used a mixed methodology for data collection. A total of 262 references were reviewed with 10 references meeting the inclusion criteria with the quality rating being: three—strong, six—moderate, and one—weak. The literature included studies from Sweden (three references), Ireland (three references), United Kingdom (six references), United States of America (two references), and Norway (one reference). Four references included studies within multiple countries. The sample size varied between 20 and 106,874 participants. The two payment systems can impact on individual outcomes, such as by overtreatment in an FFS system and undertreatment in a CF system.