Traditional cancer treatments include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. According to medical sources, chemotherapy is still the primary method for curing or treating cancer today and has been a major contributor to the recent decline in cancer mortality. Nanocomposites based on polymers and metal nanoparticles have recently received the attention of researchers. In the current study, a nanocomposite was fabricated based on carboxymethyl cellulose and silver nanoparticles (CMC-AgNPs) and their antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities were evaluated. The antibacterial results revealed that CMC-AgNPs have promising antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Klebsiella oxytoca and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus). Moreover, CMC-AgNPs exhibited antifungal activity against filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, and A. terreus. Concerning the HepG2 hepatocellular cancer cell line, the lowest IC50 values (7.9 +/- 0.41 mu g/mL) were recorded for CMC-AgNPs, suggesting a strong cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells. As a result, our findings suggest that the antitumor effect of these CMC-Ag nanoparticles is due to the induction of apoptosis and necrosis in hepatic cancer cells via increased caspase-8 and -9 activities and diminished levels of VEGFR-2. In conclusion, CMC-AgNPs exhibited antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities, which can be used in the pharmaceutical and medical fields.