Synthesis of LTL formulas from natural language texts: State of the art and research directions

Andrea Brunello, Angelo Montanari, Mark Reynolds

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperConference paper

Abstract

Linear temporal logic (LTL) is commonly used in model checking tasks; moreover, it is well-suited for the formalization of technical requirements. However, the correct specification and interpretation of temporal logic formulas require a strong mathematical background and can hardly be done by domain experts, who, instead, tend to rely on a natural language description of the intended system behaviour. In such situations, a system that is able to automatically translate English sentences into LTL formulas, and vice versa, would be of great help. While the task of rendering an LTL formula into a more readable English sentence may be carried out in a relatively easy way by properly parsing the formula, the converse is still an open problem, due to the inherent difficulty of interpreting free, natural language texts. Although several partial solutions have been proposed in the past, the literature still lacks a critical assessment of the work done. We address such a shortcoming, presenting the current state of the art for what concerns the English-to-LTL translation problem, and outlining some possible research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLeibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs
EditorsJohann Gamper, Sophie Pinchinat, Guido Sciavicco
PublisherSchloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing
Pages171-1719
Number of pages1549
ISBN (Electronic)9783959771276
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019
Event26th International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning, TIME 2019 - Malaga, Spain
Duration: 16 Oct 201919 Oct 2019

Publication series

NameLeibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs
Volume147
ISSN (Print)1868-8969

Conference

Conference26th International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning, TIME 2019
CountrySpain
CityMalaga
Period16/10/1919/10/19

Fingerprint

Temporal logic
Model checking
Specifications

Cite this

Brunello, A., Montanari, A., & Reynolds, M. (2019). Synthesis of LTL formulas from natural language texts: State of the art and research directions. In J. Gamper, S. Pinchinat, & G. Sciavicco (Eds.), Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs (pp. 171-1719). (Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs; Vol. 147). Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.TIME.2019.17
Brunello, Andrea ; Montanari, Angelo ; Reynolds, Mark. / Synthesis of LTL formulas from natural language texts : State of the art and research directions. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs. editor / Johann Gamper ; Sophie Pinchinat ; Guido Sciavicco. Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing, 2019. pp. 171-1719 (Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs).
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Brunello, A, Montanari, A & Reynolds, M 2019, Synthesis of LTL formulas from natural language texts: State of the art and research directions. in J Gamper, S Pinchinat & G Sciavicco (eds), Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs, vol. 147, Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing, pp. 171-1719, 26th International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning, TIME 2019, Malaga, Spain, 16/10/19. https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.TIME.2019.17

Synthesis of LTL formulas from natural language texts : State of the art and research directions. / Brunello, Andrea; Montanari, Angelo; Reynolds, Mark.

Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs. ed. / Johann Gamper; Sophie Pinchinat; Guido Sciavicco. Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing, 2019. p. 171-1719 (Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs; Vol. 147).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperConference paper

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N2 - Linear temporal logic (LTL) is commonly used in model checking tasks; moreover, it is well-suited for the formalization of technical requirements. However, the correct specification and interpretation of temporal logic formulas require a strong mathematical background and can hardly be done by domain experts, who, instead, tend to rely on a natural language description of the intended system behaviour. In such situations, a system that is able to automatically translate English sentences into LTL formulas, and vice versa, would be of great help. While the task of rendering an LTL formula into a more readable English sentence may be carried out in a relatively easy way by properly parsing the formula, the converse is still an open problem, due to the inherent difficulty of interpreting free, natural language texts. Although several partial solutions have been proposed in the past, the literature still lacks a critical assessment of the work done. We address such a shortcoming, presenting the current state of the art for what concerns the English-to-LTL translation problem, and outlining some possible research directions.

AB - Linear temporal logic (LTL) is commonly used in model checking tasks; moreover, it is well-suited for the formalization of technical requirements. However, the correct specification and interpretation of temporal logic formulas require a strong mathematical background and can hardly be done by domain experts, who, instead, tend to rely on a natural language description of the intended system behaviour. In such situations, a system that is able to automatically translate English sentences into LTL formulas, and vice versa, would be of great help. While the task of rendering an LTL formula into a more readable English sentence may be carried out in a relatively easy way by properly parsing the formula, the converse is still an open problem, due to the inherent difficulty of interpreting free, natural language texts. Although several partial solutions have been proposed in the past, the literature still lacks a critical assessment of the work done. We address such a shortcoming, presenting the current state of the art for what concerns the English-to-LTL translation problem, and outlining some possible research directions.

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Brunello A, Montanari A, Reynolds M. Synthesis of LTL formulas from natural language texts: State of the art and research directions. In Gamper J, Pinchinat S, Sciavicco G, editors, Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs. Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing. 2019. p. 171-1719. (Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs). https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.TIME.2019.17