© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Introduction: The interaction between psychosocial factors and type 1 diabetes is complex and screening for psychosocial risk factors from diagnosis of type 1 diabetes has been recommended. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the following questions: (1) How prevalent are symptoms of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes? (2) Is there an association of symptoms of depression and anxiety with diabetes management and glycemic control? Material and methods: We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO in April 2014 with an update in May 2015. When possible, data were pooled to estimate summary effects. Results: 14 studies investigated symptoms of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The pooled prevalence of depressive symptoms was 30.04%, 95% CI [16.33; 43.74]. There were correlations between symptom levels and glycemic control as well as three-way interactions between HbA1c, blood glucose monitoring frequency or diabetes-specific stress and depression. Symptoms of anxiety were reported for up to 32% of patients. A negative impact on glycemic control was demonstrated. Conclusions: Our analyses confirmed a high prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in youth with type 1 diabetes that potentially compromise diabetes management and glycemic control. In our opinion these findings support recommendations for early screening for psychological comorbidity and regular psychosocial assessment from diagnosis. Future prospective studies are warranted to further explore the interaction of symptoms of depression and anxiety with type 1 diabetes and develop evidence-based treatment models.