SURFS: Riding the waves with Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys

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Abstract

We present the Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys (surfs) simulations, a set of N-body/Hydro simulations of the concordance Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. These simulations use Planck cosmology, contain up to 10 billion particles, and sample scales and halo masses down to 1 kpc and 108 M⊙. We identify and track haloes from z = 24 to today using a state-of-the-art 6D halo finder and merger tree builder. We demonstrate that certain properties of haloes merger trees are numerically converged for haloes composed of ≳100 particles. Haloes smoothly grow in mass, Vmax, with the mass history characterized by log M(a) ∝ exp [−(a/β)α], where a is the scale factor, α(M) ≈ 0.8 & β(M) ≈ 0.024, with these parameters decreasing with decreasing halo mass. Subhaloes follow power-law cumulative mass and velocity functions, i.e. n( > f) ∝ f−α with αM = 0.83 ± 0.01 and $$\alpha _{V_{\rm max}}=2.13\pm 0.03$$ for mass and velocity, respectively, independent of redshift, as seen in previous studies. The halo-to-halo scatter in amplitude is 0.9 dex. The number of subhaloes in a halo weakly correlates with a halo's concentration c and spin λ:haloes of high c and low λ have 60 per cent more subhaloes than similar mass haloes of low c and high λ. High cadence tracking shows subhaloes are dynamic residents, with 25 per cent leaving their host halo momentarily, becoming a backsplash subhalo, and another 20 per cent changing hosts entirely, in agreement with previous studies. In general, subhaloes have elliptical orbits, e ≈ 0.6, with periods of $$2.3^{+2.1}_{-1.7}$$ Gyrs. Subhaloes lose most of their mass at pericentric passage with mass loss rates of ∼ 40 per cent Gyr−1. These catalogues will be made publicly available.
LanguageEnglish
Pages5338-5359
Number of pages22
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume475
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Apr 2018

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halos
universe
cosmology
merger
simulation
elliptical orbits
power law
catalogs
dark matter
history
histories

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@article{8aa291b869ba421399bd2f67edb00934,
title = "SURFS: Riding the waves with Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys",
abstract = "We present the Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys (surfs) simulations, a set of N-body/Hydro simulations of the concordance Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. These simulations use Planck cosmology, contain up to 10 billion particles, and sample scales and halo masses down to 1 kpc and 108 M⊙. We identify and track haloes from z = 24 to today using a state-of-the-art 6D halo finder and merger tree builder. We demonstrate that certain properties of haloes merger trees are numerically converged for haloes composed of ≳100 particles. Haloes smoothly grow in mass, Vmax, with the mass history characterized by log M(a) ∝ exp [−(a/β)α], where a is the scale factor, α(M) ≈ 0.8 & β(M) ≈ 0.024, with these parameters decreasing with decreasing halo mass. Subhaloes follow power-law cumulative mass and velocity functions, i.e. n( > f) ∝ f−α with αM = 0.83 ± 0.01 and $$\alpha _{V_{\rm max}}=2.13\pm 0.03$$ for mass and velocity, respectively, independent of redshift, as seen in previous studies. The halo-to-halo scatter in amplitude is 0.9 dex. The number of subhaloes in a halo weakly correlates with a halo's concentration c and spin λ:haloes of high c and low λ have 60 per cent more subhaloes than similar mass haloes of low c and high λ. High cadence tracking shows subhaloes are dynamic residents, with 25 per cent leaving their host halo momentarily, becoming a backsplash subhalo, and another 20 per cent changing hosts entirely, in agreement with previous studies. In general, subhaloes have elliptical orbits, e ≈ 0.6, with periods of $$2.3^{+2.1}_{-1.7}$$ Gyrs. Subhaloes lose most of their mass at pericentric passage with mass loss rates of ∼ 40 per cent Gyr−1. These catalogues will be made publicly available.",
author = "P.J. Elahi and C. Welker and C. Power and Lagos, {Claudia del P} and A. Robotham and R. Ca{\~n}as and R. Poulton",
year = "2018",
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day = "21",
doi = "10.1093/mnras/sty061",
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pages = "5338--5359",
journal = "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society",
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SURFS: Riding the waves with Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys. / Elahi, P.J.; Welker, C.; Power, C.; Lagos, Claudia del P; Robotham, A.; Cañas, R.; Poulton, R.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 475, No. 4, 21.04.2018, p. 5338-5359.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - SURFS: Riding the waves with Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys

AU - Elahi,P.J.

AU - Welker,C.

AU - Power,C.

AU - Lagos,Claudia del P

AU - Robotham,A.

AU - Cañas,R.

AU - Poulton,R.

PY - 2018/4/21

Y1 - 2018/4/21

N2 - We present the Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys (surfs) simulations, a set of N-body/Hydro simulations of the concordance Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. These simulations use Planck cosmology, contain up to 10 billion particles, and sample scales and halo masses down to 1 kpc and 108 M⊙. We identify and track haloes from z = 24 to today using a state-of-the-art 6D halo finder and merger tree builder. We demonstrate that certain properties of haloes merger trees are numerically converged for haloes composed of ≳100 particles. Haloes smoothly grow in mass, Vmax, with the mass history characterized by log M(a) ∝ exp [−(a/β)α], where a is the scale factor, α(M) ≈ 0.8 & β(M) ≈ 0.024, with these parameters decreasing with decreasing halo mass. Subhaloes follow power-law cumulative mass and velocity functions, i.e. n( > f) ∝ f−α with αM = 0.83 ± 0.01 and $$\alpha _{V_{\rm max}}=2.13\pm 0.03$$ for mass and velocity, respectively, independent of redshift, as seen in previous studies. The halo-to-halo scatter in amplitude is 0.9 dex. The number of subhaloes in a halo weakly correlates with a halo's concentration c and spin λ:haloes of high c and low λ have 60 per cent more subhaloes than similar mass haloes of low c and high λ. High cadence tracking shows subhaloes are dynamic residents, with 25 per cent leaving their host halo momentarily, becoming a backsplash subhalo, and another 20 per cent changing hosts entirely, in agreement with previous studies. In general, subhaloes have elliptical orbits, e ≈ 0.6, with periods of $$2.3^{+2.1}_{-1.7}$$ Gyrs. Subhaloes lose most of their mass at pericentric passage with mass loss rates of ∼ 40 per cent Gyr−1. These catalogues will be made publicly available.

AB - We present the Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys (surfs) simulations, a set of N-body/Hydro simulations of the concordance Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. These simulations use Planck cosmology, contain up to 10 billion particles, and sample scales and halo masses down to 1 kpc and 108 M⊙. We identify and track haloes from z = 24 to today using a state-of-the-art 6D halo finder and merger tree builder. We demonstrate that certain properties of haloes merger trees are numerically converged for haloes composed of ≳100 particles. Haloes smoothly grow in mass, Vmax, with the mass history characterized by log M(a) ∝ exp [−(a/β)α], where a is the scale factor, α(M) ≈ 0.8 & β(M) ≈ 0.024, with these parameters decreasing with decreasing halo mass. Subhaloes follow power-law cumulative mass and velocity functions, i.e. n( > f) ∝ f−α with αM = 0.83 ± 0.01 and $$\alpha _{V_{\rm max}}=2.13\pm 0.03$$ for mass and velocity, respectively, independent of redshift, as seen in previous studies. The halo-to-halo scatter in amplitude is 0.9 dex. The number of subhaloes in a halo weakly correlates with a halo's concentration c and spin λ:haloes of high c and low λ have 60 per cent more subhaloes than similar mass haloes of low c and high λ. High cadence tracking shows subhaloes are dynamic residents, with 25 per cent leaving their host halo momentarily, becoming a backsplash subhalo, and another 20 per cent changing hosts entirely, in agreement with previous studies. In general, subhaloes have elliptical orbits, e ≈ 0.6, with periods of $$2.3^{+2.1}_{-1.7}$$ Gyrs. Subhaloes lose most of their mass at pericentric passage with mass loss rates of ∼ 40 per cent Gyr−1. These catalogues will be made publicly available.

U2 - 10.1093/mnras/sty061

DO - 10.1093/mnras/sty061

M3 - Article

VL - 475

SP - 5338

EP - 5359

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

T2 - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

IS - 4

ER -