Multi-component self-assembly involving bis-phosphonium and bis-imidazolium cations, and p-sulfonatocalixarene feature supermolecules based on two geometrically opposed calixarenes end-capping each bis-imidazolium cation, either with coordinated lanthanide cations or with the phosphonium cations residing around the upper rim of the calixarenes. The nature of the calixarene-bis-imidazolium interaction is mapped out using Hirshfeld surface analysis. H-1 NMR and ROESY experiments establish the formation of the supermolecules of the bis-imidazolium cation and calixarenes in solution.
Ling, I., Alias, Y., Sobolev, A., Byrne, L., & Raston, C. (2011). Supramolecular architecture containing end-capping bis-imidazolium cations. CrystEngComm, 13, 787-793. https://doi.org/10.1039/c002787a