The Indian Ocean region includes large ocean areas and a range of continental and island States with diverse legal systems, development status and political agendas. From a legal perspective, the challenges of regulating fisheries in such contexts are significant. Yet if blue economy goals are to be achieved – and food security, livelihoods and economies based on fishery resources assured – then sustainable management and utilization must be a priority. The imperative is clear when environmental degradation, the impacts of climate change and growing populations are taken into account. This article explores marine resource governance in the Indian Ocean, the legal landscape relevant to the management of fisheries, as well as selected national law and policy approaches. Thereafter recommendations are made for advancing law and policy to achieve blue economy goals, address pressures and ensure food security and livelihoods for future generations.