Supergene remobilization of Au in Au-bearing regolith related to orogenic deposits: A case study from Kazakhstan

Yuri A. Kalinin, Galina A. Palyanova, Evgeny A. Naumov, Konstantin R. Kovalev, Franco Pirajno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Our study of the primary and supergene gold from the Suzdal and Raigorodok deposits in Kazakhstan confirms that during the formation of the regolith in both deposits, invisible and fine gold is released from the host sulfide minerals during their oxidation and destruction; and transported in the form of soluble thiosulfate complexes by near-surface solutions. Upon contact with a geochemical barrier, gold can be deposited as crystalline aggregates. In the deposition of this gold the role of geochemical barriers, such as variations of redox, pH and sorption are very important. Evidence of the past processes of dissolution, redistribution and aggregation of gold in the regolith in these deposits is provided by the following features: 1)The presence of dissolution and growth structures on the surface of newly formed gold; 2)The size of the gold grains increases and newly formed gold microcrystals appear on the surface of the grains; 3)Changes in the composition of native gold (e.g. decrease of silver content); 4)The accumulation of gold in subhorizontal localized layers within the regolith; 5)Gold association with supergene minerals (limonite, jarosite, goethite, Mn-hydroxides, opal, gypsum, calcite, clay minerals, etc.). This detailed study of the specific compositional and structural features of supergene gold and the physicochemical conditions of regolith environment allowed the recognition of the releasing, dissolution, transfer and aggregation processes of gold in the regolith.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)358-369
Number of pages12
JournalOre Geology Reviews
Volume109
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019

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Bearings (structural)
remobilization
regolith
Gold
Deposits
gold
Dissolution
dissolution
Agglomeration
Hydroxides
Sulfide minerals
Calcium Sulfate
Thiosulfates
Microcrystals
jarosite
Calcium Carbonate
thiosulfate
opal
mineral

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Kalinin, Yuri A. ; Palyanova, Galina A. ; Naumov, Evgeny A. ; Kovalev, Konstantin R. ; Pirajno, Franco. / Supergene remobilization of Au in Au-bearing regolith related to orogenic deposits : A case study from Kazakhstan. In: Ore Geology Reviews. 2019 ; Vol. 109. pp. 358-369.
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Supergene remobilization of Au in Au-bearing regolith related to orogenic deposits : A case study from Kazakhstan. / Kalinin, Yuri A.; Palyanova, Galina A.; Naumov, Evgeny A.; Kovalev, Konstantin R.; Pirajno, Franco.

In: Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 109, 01.06.2019, p. 358-369.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Supergene remobilization of Au in Au-bearing regolith related to orogenic deposits

T2 - A case study from Kazakhstan

AU - Kalinin, Yuri A.

AU - Palyanova, Galina A.

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AU - Kovalev, Konstantin R.

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AB - Our study of the primary and supergene gold from the Suzdal and Raigorodok deposits in Kazakhstan confirms that during the formation of the regolith in both deposits, invisible and fine gold is released from the host sulfide minerals during their oxidation and destruction; and transported in the form of soluble thiosulfate complexes by near-surface solutions. Upon contact with a geochemical barrier, gold can be deposited as crystalline aggregates. In the deposition of this gold the role of geochemical barriers, such as variations of redox, pH and sorption are very important. Evidence of the past processes of dissolution, redistribution and aggregation of gold in the regolith in these deposits is provided by the following features: 1)The presence of dissolution and growth structures on the surface of newly formed gold; 2)The size of the gold grains increases and newly formed gold microcrystals appear on the surface of the grains; 3)Changes in the composition of native gold (e.g. decrease of silver content); 4)The accumulation of gold in subhorizontal localized layers within the regolith; 5)Gold association with supergene minerals (limonite, jarosite, goethite, Mn-hydroxides, opal, gypsum, calcite, clay minerals, etc.). This detailed study of the specific compositional and structural features of supergene gold and the physicochemical conditions of regolith environment allowed the recognition of the releasing, dissolution, transfer and aggregation processes of gold in the regolith.

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