We propose a superspace formulation for the Weyl multiplet of N = 1 conformal supergravity in five dimensions. The corresponding superspace constraints are invariant under super-Weyl transformations generated by a real scalar parameter. The minimal supergravity multiplet, which was introduced by Howe in 1981, emerges if one couples the Weyl multiplet to an Abelian vector multiplet and then breaks the super-Weyl invariance by imposing the gauge condition W = 1, with W the field strength of the vector multiplet. The geometry of superspace is shown to allow the existence of a large family of off-shell supermultiplets that possess uniquely determined super-Weyl transformation laws and can be used to describe supersymmetric matter. Many of these supermultiplets have not appeared within the superconformal tensor calculus. We formulate a manifestly locally supersymmetric and super-Weyl invariant action principle. In the super-Weyl gauge W = 1, this action reduces to that constructed in arXiv:0712.3102. We also present a superspace formulation for the dilaton Weyl multiplet.