© 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society. Background: No study has been published on the prevalence of suicidal behaviour in older Chinese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examined the 1-year prevalence of suicidal ideation in older Chinese COPD patients and explored its demographic and clinical correlates. Methods: A consecutive sample of 143 COPD patients and 211 matched control subjects were recruited and interviewed using structured, standardized instruments. Results: The 1-year prevalence of suicidal ideation in COPD patients and controls were 15.4% and 10.9%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in COPD patients. Conclusion: Suicidal ideation was not higher in COPD patients than in controls.