Submillimeter-wave cornea phantom sensing over an extended depth of field with an axicon-generated Bessel beam

Mariangela Baggio, Aleksi Tamminen, Joel Lamberg, Roman Grigorev, Samu Ville Palli, Juha Ala-Laurinaho, Irina Nefedova, Jean Louis Bourges, Sophie X. Deng, Elliott R. Brown, Vincent P. Wallace, Zachary D. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The feasibility of a 220 - 330 GHz zero order axicon generated Bessel beam for corneal water content was explored. Simulation and experimental data from the 25-degree cone angle hyperbolic-axicon lens illuminating metallic spherical targets demonstrate a monotonically decreasing, band integrated, backscatter intensity for increasing radius of curvature from 7 – 11 mm, when lens reflector and optical axis are aligned. Further, for radii > = 9.5 mm, maximum signal was obtained with a 1 mm transverse displacement between lens and reflector optical axes arising from spatial correlation between main lobe and out of phase side lobes. Thickness and permittivity parameter estimation experiments were performed on an 8 mm radius of curvature, 1 mm thick fused quartz dome over a 10 mm axial span. Extracted thickness and permittivity varied by less than ∼ 25 μm and 0.2 respectively after correction for superluminal velocity. Estimated water permittivity and thickness of water backed gelatin phantoms showed significantly more variation due to a time varying radius of curvature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that describes axicon generated Bessel beam measurements of layered spheres with varying radii of curvature, in the submillimeter range.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-144
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology
Issue number2
Early online date11 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


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