INTRODUCTION: Regular intramuscular benzathine penicillin G injections have been the cornerstone of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) secondary prophylaxis since the 1950s. As the pharmacological correlate of protection remains unknown, it is difficult to recommend changes to this established regimen. Determining the minimum effective penicillin exposure required to prevent Streptococcus pyogenes infection will accelerate development of new long-acting penicillins for RHD prevention as well as inform opportunities to improve existing regimens. The CHIPS trial will address this knowledge gap by directly testing protection afforded by different steady state plasma concentrations of penicillin in an established model of experimental human S. pyogenes pharyngitis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised experimental human infection study. Sixty healthy adult volunteers aged 18-40 years will be recruited and randomised 1:1:1:1:1 to continuous intravenous penicillin infusions targeting five different steady state plasma concentrations of 0 (placebo), 3, 6, 12 and 20 ng/mL via a midline catheter. Each participant's penicillin pharmacokinetic parameters will be established prior to the challenge, to ensure accurate dosing for the continuous infusion. Following the challenge with a well-characterised strain of S. pyogenes, participants will be observed for up to 6 days for the development of pharyngitis and treated with antibiotics prior to discharge. The primary objective is to determine the minimum effective steady-state plasma penicillin concentration required to prevent experimental pharyngitis. Secondary objectives will explore systemic and mucosal immunoinflammatory responses during pharyngitis, bacterial colonisation dynamics, environmental contamination and qualitative evaluation of the participant experience. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained (Bellberry Human Research Ethics Committee). Findings will be reported in peer-reviewed publications and presented at national/international stakeholder forums. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12621000751875.