In the process of gas extraction, fracture-pore structure significantly influences the macroscopic permeability of coal seam. However, under the multi-field coupling, the mechanism of coal seam fracture-pore evolution remains to be clarified. In this paper, considering the effect of adsorption expansion, the fractal theory for porous media coupled with the multi-field model for coal seam is considered, and a multi-field coupling mechanical model is constructed by considering the influence of fracture-pore structure. Furthermore, the evolution mechanism of fractal dimension with physical and mechanical parameters of coal seam is studied. It is found that the fractal dimension for coal seam is inversely proportional to mining time and in situ stress, proportional to elastic modulus, Langmuir volume constant and Langmuir volume strain constant, and inversely proportional to Langmuir pressure constant. Compared with other factors, Langmuir pressure constant and Langmuir volume strain constant have the significance influence on the fractal dimension for the fracture length.