Seed and pollen transmission of alfalfa mosaic (AMV), cucumber mosaic (CMV) and bean yellow mosaic (BYMV) viruses was investigated in annual medic species (Medicago spp.). For seed transmission studies with AMV, graft inoculation aas used to establish early infection and maximize possible transmission rates to seedlings via seed, but with CMV and BYMV aphid and/or graft inoculation was used. For pollen transmission studies, pollen taken from virus-infected plants was used to pollinate healthy plants, the seed collected and seedlings tested. The rates of AMV isolate OUI-2 transmission to seedlings through seed produced on infected plants ranged from 6 to 53% for commercial cultivars and from 7 to 65% for accessions. Accession DZA 3181.1.1 of M. sphaerocarpos had the highest overall AMV transmission rate. Only two cultivars, cvv. Borung and Hannaford of M. truncatula, and accession SA 4268 of M. orbicularis, had transmission rates of less than 10%. The rates of CMV transmission to seedlings via seed produced on infected plants of the cultivars and accessions tested were 0.3 to 13%, the greatest being found in M. polymorpha cv. Serena, but 6 out of 11 had no detectable transmission. The rates of BYMV transmission to seedlings via seed of the cultivars and accessions tested were 0.3 to 1%, but in 12 out of 15 none was detected. AMV isolate OUI-2 was transmitted to 52% of seedlings via seed produced on healthy M. polymorpha cv. Circle Valley plants pollinated from infected plants. In contrast, no transmission to seedlings by either graft-inoculation or pollination of M. polymorpha plants was detected with a second AMV isolate, OUI-1, which appeared to have lost its ablilty to be seed transmitted. No CMV or BYMV transmission to seedlings via pollination of healthy plants with pollen from infected plants was detected in M. polymorpha cvv. Circle Valley or Santiago.When empty immature pods, and dissected seed coats and embryos from immature seeds produced on AMV-infected plants of M. polymorpha were tested, AMV isolates OUI-I and OUI-2 were detected in all pods and seed coats, but only in 59% of embryos with isolate OUI-2 and in none with isolate OUI-1. CMV was detected in 12% of embryos tested from immature seeds produced on CMV-infected M. polymorpha cv. Serena plants.Transmission of all three viruses through seed, and of AMV through pollen, is cause for concern in annual medic breeding and evaluation programs. Moreover, carry-over outside the growing season in medic pastures is possible through seed with all three viruses.