Rationale: Delirium is defined as acute organic brain dysfunction characterised by inattention and disturbance of cognition. It is common in the intensive care unit and is associated with poorer outcomes. Good quality sleep is important in the prevention and management of delirium. Melatonin is a natural hormone secreted by the pineal gland which helps in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. It is possible that melatonin supplementation in intensive care improves sleep and prevents delirium. Methods and design: The ‘Prophylactic Melatonin for Delirium in Intensive Care’ study is a multi-centre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether melatonin given prophylactically decreases delirium in critically ill patients. A total of 850 ICU patients have been randomised (1:1) to receive either melatonin or a placebo. Participants were monitored twice daily for symptoms of delirium. Results: This paper and the attached additional files describe the statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the trial. The SAP has been developed and submitted for publication before the database has been locked and before the treatment allocation has been unblinded. The SAP contains details of analyses to be undertaken, which will be reported in the primary and secondary publications. Discussion: The SAP details the analyses that will be done to avoid bias coming from knowledge of the results in advance. This trial will determine whether prophylactic melatonin administered to intensive care unit patients helps decrease the rate and the severity of delirium. Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN1261600043647, registration date: 06 April 2016. WHO Trial Number – U1111-1175-1814.