Stages of readiness for advance care planning: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates and associated factors

Minghui Tan, Jinfeng Ding, Claire E. Johnson, Angus Cook, Chongmei Huang, Lin Xiao, Siyuan Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Advance care planning has been widely recommended to respect the medical care preferences of patients in the final stages of life. However, uptake of advance care planning in healthcare settings remains suboptimal. It may be beneficial to take into account individuals' readiness for advance care planning based on the stages to change identified in the Transtheoretical Model. Objective: To identify the measurements used to assess readiness of advance care planning based on the Transtheoretical Model, to pool the prevalence of readiness stages, and to summarize the factors affecting people's readiness for advance care planning. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We systematically searched the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science for relevant studies from inception to February 2023. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. And a narrative review on the factors associated with stages of readiness was conducted. Results: This meta-analysis included 25 studies involving a total of 4237 individuals. The precontemplation stage was the most commonly identified stage of readiness among advance care planning behaviors (26–72 %). The prevalence of readiness stages for advance care planning varied among different types of behavior. The behavior of “talking to health care proxy/family/loved ones about thoughts on quality versus quantity of life” had the highest level of readiness among all listed behaviors, followed by “talking to health care proxy/family/loved ones about living will”, “signing a health care proxy form” and “signing a living will”, “signing an advance directive”, as well as “talking to doctors about living will”. Regarding to influencing factors, a majority of sociodemographic and clinical factors did not show consistent associations with readiness, but some studies did suggest potential links with age, health status, countries, type of assessment, core structures of the Transtheoretical Model, and intervention modalities. Conclusions: A majority of individuals were unaware of advance care planning. There is an urgent need to promote readiness for such planning. Starting with preliminary activities such as “talking to health care proxy/family/loved ones about thoughts on quality versus quantity of life” can help initiate advance care planning. Better integration of the Transtheoretical Model and interventions into the research of advance care planning readiness are needed. Registration: Not registered.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104678
JournalInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume151
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024

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