Stable H–C–O isotope and trace element geochemistry of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, Kimberley region, Western Australia: implications for hydrothermal REE mineralization, carbonatite evolution and mantle source regions

P.J. Downes, A. Deméný, G. Czuppon, A.L. Jaques, M.R. Verrall, M. Sweetapple, David Adams, N.J. Mcnaughton, L.G. Gwalani, Brendan Griffin

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Abstract

© 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The Neoproterozoic Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex (CRCC) is situated in the southern Halls Creek Orogen adjacent to the Kimberley Craton in northern Western Australia. The CRCC is a composite, subvertical to vertical stock ∼2 km across with a rim of phlogopite–diopside clinopyroxenite surrounding a plug of calcite carbonatite and dolomite carbonatite dykes and veins that contain variable proportions of apatite–phlogopite–magnetite ± pyrochlore ± metasomatic Na–Ca amphiboles ± zircon. Early high-Sr calcite carbonatites (4,800–6,060 ppm Sr; La/YbCN= 31.6–41.5; δ13C = −4.2 to −4.0 ‰) possibly were derived from a carbonated silicate parental magma by fractional crystallization. Associated high-Sr dolomite carbonatites (4,090–6,310 ppm Sr; La/YbCN= 96.5–352) and a late-stage, narrow, high rare earth element (REE) dolomite carbonatite dyke (La/YbCN= 2756) define a shift in the C–O stable isotope data (δ18O = 7.5 to 12.6 ‰; δ13C = −4.2 to −2.2 ‰) from the primary carbonatite field that may have been produced by Rayleigh fractionation with magma crystallization and cooling or through crustal contamination via fluid infiltration. Past exploration has focussed primarily on the secondary monazite-(Ce)-rich REE and U mineralization in the oxidized zone overlying the carbonatite. However, high-grade primary hydrothermal REE mineralization also occurs in narrow (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)905-932
JournalMineralium Deposita
Volume49
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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