Agriculture is the largest user of developed water resources in most countries, and often accounts for 70% or more of water withdrawals from rivers, lakes and aquifers. As we look towards a future in which increasing demands will be placed on existing water resources from many sectors, including urban agglomerations, industry, environmental flows and climate change, the pressure will increase on agriculture to become more efficient and to achieve more productivity per litre of water allocated. The need to improve irrigation performance is a crucial issue for further irrigated agriculture developments. Irrigation is simply the artificial application of water to the soil through various systems of channels, furrows, tubes, pumps, and sprays to provide simulated rainfall to support plant growth. Irrigation is usually used in areas where rainfall is irregular or low, where droughts are experienced or where agricultural productivity needs to extend beyond local, natural growing seasons. There are various types of irrigation systems which can apply water to the soil surface (or subsurface) as one part of a broader production process to create optimal growing conditions. As with any system, the user is central to the design, along with understanding the scope and application, for example water availability, the crops grown and the soil type, to ensure optimal performance. This chapter reviews the various types of sprinkler irrigation systems, their characteristics and capacity to provide water to plants that are a source of food for animals and people.
|Title of host publication
|Handbook of Irrigation Hydrology and Management
|Subtitle of host publication
|Saeid Eslamian, Faezeh Eslamian
|Place of Publication
|Number of pages
|Published - 11 May 2023