Specific Infections, Infection-Related Behaviour, and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Adults

C.M. Vajdic, A.E. Grulich, J.M. Kaldor, Lin Fritschi, G. Benke, A.M. Hughes, A. Kricker, J.J. Turner, S. Milliken, B.K. Armstrong

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16 Citations (Scopus)


Infections were examined as possible risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Incident cases (n = 694) had no history of HIV infection or transplantation. Controls (n = 694) were randomly selected from electoral rolls and frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. A postal questionnaire and telephone interview measured history of specific infections, occupational exposures, and behavioral and other risk factors for infection. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to human T-lymphotrophic virus type I and hepatitis C virus. Logistic regression models included the three matching variables and ethnicity. There was no association between risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and any of the variables analyzed, including sexually transmitted infections, sexual behavior, blood transfusions, influenza, acne, and either occupational or domestic exposure to zoonotic infections. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk was nonsignificantly elevated (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-11.51) for those with a history of injecting drug use. Three cases and two controls (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-7.98) tested positive to hepatitis C virus infection and none tested positive to human T-lymphotrophic virus type I/II infection. This study provides consistent evidence that sexually transmitted infections and zoonoses are not risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1102-1108
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2006


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