Spatio-temporal dynamics in land surface phenology parameters observed over croplands can inform on crop-climate interactions and, elucidate local to regional scale vulnerabilities either due to climate change or prevailing sub-optimal agricultural practices. Here, we observe spatio-temporal trends in land surface phenology parameters (cropping intensity, length of growing season and productivity) for kharif and rabi cropping seasons from satellite data across the Indo-Gangetic Plains from 1982 to 2006. The productivity of the Indo-Gangetic Plains croplands is of regional importance and is a vital component of Indian national food security efforts. Aside from local and intra-state heterogeneity in observed trends there was a clear west-to-east gradient in cropping intensity. Key observed trends include increasing cropping intensity in the eastern IGP, increasing number of growing days per year in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana and increasing productivity in both cropping seasons across the IGP. This information is a crucial input to integrated assessments of the croplands to ensure management of the agricultural system shifts towards a trajectory of climate-resilience and environmental sustainability. © 2014 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.