STUDY OBJECTIVE: Inflammation plays an important role in acute coronary syndromes, and some evidence indicates that patients with a more pronounced vascular inflammatory response have a poorer outcome. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is a specific marker for vascular endothelial cell activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of plasma sICAM-1 levels in patients with acute chest pain compatible with myocardial ischemia.
METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at 2 urban university medical centers. The study cohort consisted of 119 consecutive patients with chest pain in whom myocardial ischemia was suspected clinically at presentation. Patients with conditions that affect sICAM-1 levels were ineligible. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), C-reactive protein, and sICAM-1 levels were assayed at presentation to the emergency department. The primary end point was the occurrence of a serious cardiac event (death, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization) in the hospital.
RESULTS: Although sICAM-1 levels tended to be higher in patients with a serious cardiac event, there was no significant association. In contrast, a cTnI level greater than 0.2 ng/mL was a powerful predictor of an in-hospital serious cardiac event (odds ratio 16.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7 to 55.9; P <.0001). Soluble ICAM-1 levels of more than 260 ng/mL at presentation had a sensitivity for predicting a serious cardiac event of 63% (95% CI 46% to 81%) but a specificity of only 47% (95% CI 38% to 57%).
CONCLUSION: In a heterogeneous population of patients with chest pain compatible with myocardial ischemia, elevated sICAM-1 levels are poor predictors of an individual patient suffering a serious cardiac event in the hospital.