Anti-seasonal drying-wetting cycles since 2010 have substantially altered its soil and vegetation status in the drawdown zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Such alternations may thus affect the composition and functioning of soil microbial communities, including the beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which enhance plant performance. Moreover, limited information is available if AMF communities are different in soils and roots, particularly under contrasting land-use changes. By combining the Illumina Miseq sequencing with bioinformatics analyses, AMF communities in both rhizosphere soils and roots of a stoloniferous and rhizomatous C4 perennial of Cynodon dactylon were characterized under three land-use types: (1) crop cultivated, (2) non-cultivated non-disturbed, and (3) disturbed non-cultivated land. A total of 35 and 26 AMF taxa were respectively detected from C. dactylon rhizosphere soils and roots from these three land-use types, which had endured four anti-seasonal drying/summer-wetting/winter cycles. Contrasting differentiations in the AMF community composition and structure were displayed in the C. dactylon rhizosphere soils and roots, and between land-use types. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses revealed that AMF communities significantly correlated to soil organic carbon in the rhizosphere soils and roots of C. dactylon, to land-use types only in rhizosphere soils, whereas to soil moisture only in roots. Our results highlight the effects of soil nutrients and land-use changes on AMF community composition and diversity under the canopy of C. dactylon in TGR. The identified dominant AMF taxa can be employed to vegetation restoration in such degraded habitats globally.