Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first piloted in April 2004 in Yunnan, China, to reduce HIV transmission. This study aimed to examine public support for MMT and was based on cross-sectional data collected in March-April 2006 on a random sample of 411 police staff, medical/health professionals, community members, and drug users. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. The support was the strongest amongst the police and medical professionals but the lowest in drug users. A considerable proportion of the respondents viewed MMT as contradictory to China's drug control policies and this factor was negatively associated with support for MMT. Dissemination of more accurate knowledge and the resolution of these conflicts are urgently needed to increase the public support for MMT.