Social-ecological measure of resilience: An adapted measure for Persian-speaking university students

Mohammadali Amini-Tehrani, Mohammad Nasiri, Raheleh Sadeghi, Elahe Sadat Hoseini, Tina Jalali, Hadi Zamanian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: There is no validated instrument for Persian-speaking students to apply the social-ecological resilience theory (SERT), which emphasizes the ecological resources for developing resilience. The study aimed at developing the student social-ecological resilience measure (Student-SERM) in Iran’s context. Methods: Three separate samples of undergraduates participated in this mixed-methods research from the University of Tehran, Iran. Phase-1 qualitatively explored the resilience features in the university setting, to devise the university-specific subscale (USS). Phase-2 piloted the construct validity and reliability of the Student-SERM in 242 undergraduates, who also completed Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Phase-3, as a cross-validation study, investigated 487 undergraduates, who completed the refined Student-SERM, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and three indices screening academic performance, loneliness, and suicide acceptability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Pearson’s correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha were performed. Results: Phase-1 yielded nine items for USS. In phase-2, EFA indicated the construct validity of the main 20-item measure (RMSEA=0.06 and SRMR=0.04) and the nine-item USS (RMSEA = 0.07 and SRMR = 0.04), and the reliability and convergent/divergent validity were confirmed. In phase-3, EFA (RMSEA = 0.07 and SRMR = 0.04) and CFA (RMSEA = 0.07, CFI = 0.89, TLI = 0.87, and SRMR = 0.07) in two separate subsamples and CFA (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.90, and SRMR = 0.06) in the total sample indicated the construct validity of the refined Student-SERM, including family, peer, culture, growth, and USS subscales. The reliability and convergent/divergent validity were also reconfirmed. Conclusion: The Student-SERM incorporates ecological resources, accounting for the students’ resilience. Since the resilience process involves a return to healthy functioning after adversity, further research can examine the application of Student-SERM in high-risk student populations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-219
Number of pages13
JournalHealth Promotion Perspectives
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes


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