SnPKS19 encodes the polyketide synthase for alternariol mycotoxin biosynthesis in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum

Heng Chooi, M.J. Muria-Gonzalez, O.L. Mead, P.S. Solomon

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Abstract

© 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Alternariol (AOH) is an important mycotoxin from the Alternaria fungi. AOH was detected for the first time in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum in a recent study. Here, we exploited reverse genetics to demonstrate that SNOG_15829 (SnPKS19), a close homolog of Penicillium aethiopicum norlichexanthone (NLX) synthase gene gsfA, is required for AOH production. We further validate that SnPKS19 is solely responsible for AOH production by heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans. The expression profile of SnPKS19 based on previous P. nodorum microarray data correlated with the presence of AOH in vitro and its absence in planta. Subsequent characterization of the ΔSnPKS19 mutants showed that SnPKS19 and AOH are not involved in virulence and oxidative stress tolerance. Identification and characterization of the P. nodorum SnPKS19 cast light on a possible alternative AOH synthase gene in Alternaria alternata and allowed us to survey the distribution of AOH synthase genes in other fungal genomes. We further demonstrate that phylogenetic analysis could be used to differentiate between AOH synthases and the closely related NLX synthases. This study provides the basis for studying the genetic regulation of AOH production and for development of molecular diagnostic methods for detecting AOH-producing fungi in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5309-5317
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume81
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015

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Polyketide Synthases
polyketide synthases
Mycotoxins
mycotoxins
Triticum
Alternaria
pathogen
wheat
biosynthesis
gene
pathogens
Fungi
Fungal Genome
fungus
Genes
Reverse Genetics
Aspergillus nidulans
fungi
genes
Molecular Pathology

Cite this

@article{4008781991bc48589163fda3964b2016,
title = "SnPKS19 encodes the polyketide synthase for alternariol mycotoxin biosynthesis in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Alternariol (AOH) is an important mycotoxin from the Alternaria fungi. AOH was detected for the first time in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum in a recent study. Here, we exploited reverse genetics to demonstrate that SNOG_15829 (SnPKS19), a close homolog of Penicillium aethiopicum norlichexanthone (NLX) synthase gene gsfA, is required for AOH production. We further validate that SnPKS19 is solely responsible for AOH production by heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans. The expression profile of SnPKS19 based on previous P. nodorum microarray data correlated with the presence of AOH in vitro and its absence in planta. Subsequent characterization of the ΔSnPKS19 mutants showed that SnPKS19 and AOH are not involved in virulence and oxidative stress tolerance. Identification and characterization of the P. nodorum SnPKS19 cast light on a possible alternative AOH synthase gene in Alternaria alternata and allowed us to survey the distribution of AOH synthase genes in other fungal genomes. We further demonstrate that phylogenetic analysis could be used to differentiate between AOH synthases and the closely related NLX synthases. This study provides the basis for studying the genetic regulation of AOH production and for development of molecular diagnostic methods for detecting AOH-producing fungi in the future.",
author = "Heng Chooi and M.J. Muria-Gonzalez and O.L. Mead and P.S. Solomon",
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SnPKS19 encodes the polyketide synthase for alternariol mycotoxin biosynthesis in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum. / Chooi, Heng; Muria-Gonzalez, M.J.; Mead, O.L.; Solomon, P.S.

In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 81, No. 16, 08.2015, p. 5309-5317.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - SnPKS19 encodes the polyketide synthase for alternariol mycotoxin biosynthesis in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum

AU - Chooi, Heng

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N2 - © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Alternariol (AOH) is an important mycotoxin from the Alternaria fungi. AOH was detected for the first time in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum in a recent study. Here, we exploited reverse genetics to demonstrate that SNOG_15829 (SnPKS19), a close homolog of Penicillium aethiopicum norlichexanthone (NLX) synthase gene gsfA, is required for AOH production. We further validate that SnPKS19 is solely responsible for AOH production by heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans. The expression profile of SnPKS19 based on previous P. nodorum microarray data correlated with the presence of AOH in vitro and its absence in planta. Subsequent characterization of the ΔSnPKS19 mutants showed that SnPKS19 and AOH are not involved in virulence and oxidative stress tolerance. Identification and characterization of the P. nodorum SnPKS19 cast light on a possible alternative AOH synthase gene in Alternaria alternata and allowed us to survey the distribution of AOH synthase genes in other fungal genomes. We further demonstrate that phylogenetic analysis could be used to differentiate between AOH synthases and the closely related NLX synthases. This study provides the basis for studying the genetic regulation of AOH production and for development of molecular diagnostic methods for detecting AOH-producing fungi in the future.

AB - © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Alternariol (AOH) is an important mycotoxin from the Alternaria fungi. AOH was detected for the first time in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum in a recent study. Here, we exploited reverse genetics to demonstrate that SNOG_15829 (SnPKS19), a close homolog of Penicillium aethiopicum norlichexanthone (NLX) synthase gene gsfA, is required for AOH production. We further validate that SnPKS19 is solely responsible for AOH production by heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans. The expression profile of SnPKS19 based on previous P. nodorum microarray data correlated with the presence of AOH in vitro and its absence in planta. Subsequent characterization of the ΔSnPKS19 mutants showed that SnPKS19 and AOH are not involved in virulence and oxidative stress tolerance. Identification and characterization of the P. nodorum SnPKS19 cast light on a possible alternative AOH synthase gene in Alternaria alternata and allowed us to survey the distribution of AOH synthase genes in other fungal genomes. We further demonstrate that phylogenetic analysis could be used to differentiate between AOH synthases and the closely related NLX synthases. This study provides the basis for studying the genetic regulation of AOH production and for development of molecular diagnostic methods for detecting AOH-producing fungi in the future.

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