Background: Sleep disturbance is associated with a number of negative adverse outcomes. This study examined the prevalence of sleep disturbance and its association with demographic and clinical characteristics and quality of life (QOL) in psychiatric nurses in China. Methods: This is a multi-center, cross-sectional study involving 11 psychiatric hospitals in China. Three types of sleep disturbance (difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) and early-morning awakening (EMA)) and QOL were measured by standardized questions or instruments. Results: A total of 1,847 psychiatric nurses participated. The overall prevalence of at least one type of sleep disturbance was 71.5% (95% CI [69.3-73.5]); the prevalence of DIS, DMS and EMA was 58.5% (95% CI [56.2-60.8]), 53.7% (95% CI [51.4-56.0]) and 54.6% (95% CI [52.3-56.9]), respectively. Nurses with sleep disturbance had significantly lower QOL in physical (F(1, 1,846) = 219.12, P < 0.001), psychological (F(1, 1,846) = 72.18, P < 0.001), social (F(1, 1,846) = 37.57, P < 0.001) and environmental domains (F(1, 1,846) = 95.45, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that shift work (DIS, OR = 1.6, 95% CI [1.28-1.98]; DMS, OR = 1.2, 95% CI [1.001-1.54]; EMA, OR = 1.3, 95% CI [1.02-1.58]) and alcohol use (DIS, OR = 1.8, 95% CI [1.46-2.32]; DMS, OR = 1.8, 95% CI [1.43-2.23]; EMA, OR = 1.7, 95% CI [1.33-2.07]) were positively associated with sleep disturbance, while higher monthly income (DIS, OR = 0.5, 95% CI [0.38-0.75]; DMS, OR = 0.7, 95% CI [0.51-0.98]) was negatively associated with sleep disturbance. Conclusion: Sleep disturbance was common among nurses in psychiatric hospitals in China, particularly those on shifts and having alcohol use. Health authorities should develop effective measures to reduce risk of sleep disturbance in this population.