Single superphosphate-reactive phosphate rock mixtures. 2. The effect of phosphate rock type and denning time on the amounts of acidulated and extractable phosphate

M. J. Hedley, N. S. Bolan, A. C. Braithwaite

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Abstract

Ground samples of Nauru (N), Christmas Island A (X), Jordan (J) or North Carolina (NC) phosphate rocks (PRs) were acidulated with32P 'spiked' sulphuric acid to produce single superphosphate (SSP) reaction mixtures. Subsequently, single superphosphatereactive phosphate rock (SSP-RPR) mixtures were manufactured by adding reactive phosphate rock (RPR) as either ground or unground NCPR or ground JPR to SSP reaction mixtures that had been denned for either 22 or 47 minutes after acid addition. The solubility of P in the final SSP-RPR products was assessed either by extraction with water, 2% citric acid, 2% formic acid or 1M neutral ammonium citrate (NAC), or by calculation of the exchangeable P content of the fertilizer by isotopic dilution techniques. The measurement of exchangeable P allowed calculation of the amounts of acidulated P in the ex-den SSP and the amount of RPR P acidulated on addition to ex-den SSP containing free phosphoric acid. Among the PRs used for SSP manufacture, the highest degree of acidulation at the ex-den stage was obtained for NCPR (92%) and the lowest was obtained for XPR (75%). As a consequence, the presence of XPR in the SSP reaction mixture decreased the amount of exchangeable P in the SSP-RPR mixtures. Whereas initially the conversion of PR P increased with time of acidulation at 22 minutes and 47 minutes (i.e. the time of addition of RPR) the differences in the degree of acidulation of PR in the ex-den SSP were not large and hence had no significant effect on the extractability of P in the SSP-RPR mixtures. The nature of the RPR added to the ex-den SSP reaction mixture had a significant effect on the solubility of P in the SSP-RPR mixtures. SSP-RPR mixtures with added unground NCPR or ground JPR had lower P solubility than when ground NCPR was added. RPR P constituted between 38 and 46% of the total P in the SSP-RPR mixtures and at acid/PR (A/R) ratios of 0.60 to 0.70, between 28 to 49% of the RPR P was acidulated by the free acid in the SSP reaction mixture during manufacture. The results also indicate that RPR mixtures made using ex-den SSP made from unreactive PRs will always contain more unreactive PR residue than those made with mature SSP. However, given the practical difficulties of producing the SSP-RPR mixtures with mature SSP, denning times should be extended for as long as practicably possible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-194
Number of pages16
JournalFertilizer Research
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1988
Externally publishedYes

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