Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is benign tumor that can cause significant osteolysis and bone destruction at the epiphysis of long bones. Osteoclasts are thought to be highly associated with osteolysis in GCTB. However, the migration of osteoclasts in GCTB remains unclear. A deeper understanding of the complex tumor microenvironment is required in order to delineate the migration of osteoclasts in GCTB. In this study, samples were isolated from one patient diagnosed with GCTB. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) was used to detect the heterogeneity of GCTB. Multiplex immunofluorescence staining was used to evaluate the cell subtypes identified by scRNA-seq. A total of 8,033 cells were obtained from one patient diagnosed with GCTB, which were divided into eight major cell types as depicted by a single-cell transcriptional map. The osteoclasts were divided into three subsets, and their differentiation trajectory and migration status were further analyzed. Osteoclast migration may be regulated via a series of genes associated with cell migration. Furthermore, four signaling pathways (RANKL, PARs, CD137 and SMEA3 signaling pathway) were found to be highly associated with osteoclast migration. This comprehensive single-cell transcriptome analysis of GCTB identified a series of genes associated with cell migration as well as four major signaling pathways that were highly related to the migration of osteoclasts in GCTB. Our findings broaden the understanding of GCTB bionetworks and provides a theoretical basis for anti-osteolysis therapy against GCTB in the future.