Solid backfill coal mining is a mainstream method in green coal mining, which has gradually become a key technology to control shaft deformation when recovering industrial square pillars during mining of ultra-contiguous coal seams. On the basis of the engineering background of Nantun Coal Mine, this paper combined physical simulation, numerical simulation, and theoretical analysis for studying shaft deformation, failure characteristics, and stress variation rules during the mining of ultra-contiguous coal seams. The results revealed that shaft deformation and failure were the results of the movement of strata caused by coal mining; in addition, the backfill body compression ratios in two adjacent coal seams were the key factors in shaft deformation control during the mining of ultra-contiguous coal seams. Moreover, the effects of the backfill body compression ratios on shaft deformation in ultra-contiguous coal seam mining were simulated by ABAQUS, and the optimal compression ratios of backfill body in two coal seams were determined. Finally, based on the probability-integral method, the vertical compressive deformation and the inclined deformation of shaft were estimated and the results showed that the shaft safety and stability at ultra-contiguous coal seam mining can be provided when the backfill body compression ratios of 3upper and 3lower coal seams were set at 85%.