Sex-Specific Associations of MDM2 and MDM4 Variants with Risk of Multiple Primary Melanomas and Melanoma Survival in Non-Hispanic Whites

The GEM Study Group, Sarah V. Ward, Isidora Autuori, Li Luo, Emily LaPilla, Sarah Yoo, Ajay Sharma, Klaus J. Busam, David W. Olilla, Terence Dwyer, Hoda Anton-Culver, Roberto Zanetti, Lidia Sacchetto, Anne E. Cust, Richard P. Gallagher, Peter A. Kanetsky, Stefano Rosso, Colin B. Begg, Marianne Berwick, Nancy E. ThomasIrene Orlow

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1 Citation (Scopus)


MDM2-SNP309 (rs2279744), a common genetic modifier of cancer incidence in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, modifies risk, age of onset, or prognosis in a variety of cancers. Melanoma incidence and outcomes vary by sex, and although SNP309 exerts an effect on the estrogen receptor, no consensus exists on its effect on melanoma. MDM2 and MDM4 restrain p53-mediated tumor suppression, independently or together. We investigated SNP309, an a priori MDM4-rs4245739, and two coinherited variants, in a population-based cohort of 3663 primary incident melanomas. Per-allele and per-haplotype (MDM2_SNP309-SNP285; MDM4_rs4245739-rs1563828) odds ratios (OR) for multiple-melanoma were estimated with logistic regression models. Hazard ratios (HR) for melanoma death were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. In analyses adjusted for covariates, females carrying MDM4-rs4245739*C were more likely to develop multiple melanomas (ORper-allele = 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.51, and Ptrend = 0.03), while MDM2-rs2279744*G was inversely associated with melanoma-death (HRper-allele = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.95, and Ptrend = 0.03). We identified 16 coinherited expression quantitative loci that control the expression of MDM2, MDM4, and other genes in the skin, brain, and lungs. Our results suggest that MDM4/MDM2 variants are associated with the development of subsequent primaries and with the death of melanoma in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigations of the complex MDM2/MDM4 motif, and its contribution to the tumor microenvironment and observed associations, are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2707
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


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