Aberrant NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to the development of endotoxemia. The importance of negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasomes remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is essential for preventing endotoxemia induced by a sub-lethal dose of LPS via a caspase-11/NLRP3-dependent manner. Further studies show that NLRP3 undergoes both K63- and K48-linked polyubiquitination. Cbl-b binds to the K63-ubiquitin chains attached to the NLRP3 leucine-rich repeat domain (LRR) via its ubiquitin-associated region (UBA) and then targets NLRP3 at K496 for K48-linked ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. We also identify RNF125 as an additional E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates K63-linked ubiquitination of the NLRP3 LRR domain. Therefore, NLRP3 is sequentially ubiquitinated by K63- and K48-linked ubiquitination, thus keeping the NLRP3 inflammasomes in check and restraining endotoxemia.