Sepsis-Induced lmmunosuppression in Neonates

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Abstract

Neonates, especially those born preterm, are at increased risk of sepsis and adverse long-term effects associated with infection-related inflammation. Distinct neonatal immune responses and dysregulated inflammation are central to this unique susceptibility. The traditional separation of sepsis into an initial hyper-inflammatory response followed by hypo-inflammation is continually under review with new developments in this area of research. There is evidence to support the association of mortality in the early acute phase of sepsis with an overwhelming hyper-inflammatory immune response. Emerging evidence from adults suggests that hypo- and hyper-inflammation can occur during any phase of sepsis and that sepsis-immunosuppression is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and risk to subsequent infection. In adults, sepsis-induced immunosuppression (SII) is characterised by alterations of innate and adaptive immune responses, including, but not limited to, a prominent bias toward anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion, diminished antigen presentation to T cells, and reduced activation and proliferation of T cells. It is unclear if sepsis-immunosuppression also plays a role in the adverse outcomes associated with neonatal sepsis. This review will focus on exploring if key characteristics associated with SII in adults are observed in neonates with sepsis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number357
Number of pages20
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Nov 2018

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