Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen nosema apis

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Abstract

© 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted.We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future.
LanguageEnglish
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume283
Issue number1823
DOIs
StatePublished - 27 Jan 2016

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Nosema
Nosema apis
sexually transmitted diseases
honeybee
Bees
Pathogens
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
honey bees
Spores
pathogen
spore
spores
Fluids
fluid
pathogens
anti-infective agents
queen insects
extracellular fluids
closed loop systems
spore germination

Cite this

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title = "Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen nosema apis",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted.We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future.",
author = "Yan Peng and Julia Grassl and Harvey Millar and Boris Baer",
year = "2016",
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doi = "10.1098/rspb.2015.1785",
language = "English",
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journal = "Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: series B",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen nosema apis

AU - Peng,Yan

AU - Grassl,Julia

AU - Millar,Harvey

AU - Baer,Boris

PY - 2016/1/27

Y1 - 2016/1/27

N2 - © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted.We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future.

AB - © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted.We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future.

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DO - 10.1098/rspb.2015.1785

M3 - Article

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JO - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: series B

T2 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: series B

JF - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: series B

SN - 0962-8452

IS - 1823

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