Self-management interventions for skin care in people with a spinal cord injury: part 1—a systematic review of intervention content and effectiveness

Justine S. Baron, Katrina J. Sullivan, Jillian M. Swaine, Arlene Aspinall, Susan Jaglal, Justin Presseau, Barry White, Dalton Wolfe, Jeremy M. Grimshaw

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Study design: Systematic review. Objectives: To review the content and effectiveness of skin care self-management interventions for people with SCI. Setting: International. Methods: We searched electronic bibliographic databases, trial registers, and relevant reference lists. Eligibility criteria for the reviews of intervention content and effectiveness were identical with the exception of study design. The review of intervention content included non-randomized and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The review of effectiveness included RCTs. A Behavior Change Technique (BCT) taxonomy of 93 BCTs was used to code intervention content. Intervention effects on outcomes of interest are summarized descriptively. Effect sizes were calculated, and the Cochrane risk of bias tool applied. Results: In all, 15 studies testing 17 interventions were included in the review of intervention content. Interventions in these studies included 28 BCTs. The most common were “instructions on how to perform behavior” (16 interventions), “credible source” (12 interventions), and “social support (unspecified)” (9 interventions). Ten RCTs were included in the review of intervention effectiveness and they measured knowledge, self-efficacy, and skills relating to skin care/pressure ulcer (PU) prevention, skin care behaviors, skin status (PU prevalence, severity, and time to PU), and health-care utilization for skin problems. Evidence to support intervention effects on these outcomes was limited, particularly for clinical outcomes. Risk of bias assessments was often inconclusive due to poor reporting. Conclusions: There is potential to design SCI skin care interventions that include currently untested BCTs. Further research and better consistency in outcome measurements and reporting are required to synthesize evidence on effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)823-836
Number of pages14
JournalSpinal Cord
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2018


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