Soil ammonium toxicity can decrease plant growth, and many crop species have low resistance to ammonium, including canola, an economically important crop. Different genotypes may differ in their resistance to ammonium toxicity, and therefore determining if there are genotypes that exhibit variation in their ability to tolerate soil ammonium is a research priority. Here, we evaluate how soil ammonium impacts canola root and shoot growth and characterise differences among canola genotypes in regard to resistance to ammonium toxicity. In the first experiment, eight ammonium chloride treatments and five calcium nitrate treatments were tested for their impact on the canola genotype Crusher TT, where high application (60 mg N/kg soil) significantly decreased the dry weight of canola shoots and roots and acidified the soil from pHCaCl2 5.9 to 5.6. In the second experiment, 30 canola genotypes were screened at selected concentrations of NH4+-N, using nitrate as the control. There was wide variation among genotypes in sensitivity to high NH4+-N application. Genotypes G16, G26, and G29 had greater shoot dry weights and the highest shoot N concentration of all genotypes, and G16, G26, and G28 had root dry weight up to 35% higher at high soil NH4+-N compared with other genotypes. In contrast, genotypes G3, G13, and G30 showed the largest reduction in shoot weight, and genotypes G13, G23, and G30 showed the largest reduction in root weight at high NH4+-N application. Residual NH4+-N/kg soil in soil was higher for sensitive than resistant genotypes, suggesting lower NH4+-N use in the former. These results reveal the potential for selecting canola genotypes that are resistant to high NH4+-N concentrations in soil.