Salinity is a major constraint on crop growth and productivity, limiting sustainable agriculture in arid regions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of salt-stress adaptation in canola is important to improve salt tolerance and promote its cultivation in saline lands. In this study, roots of control (no salt) and 200 mM NaCl-stressed canola seedlings were collected for RNA-Seq analysis and qRT-PCR validation. A total of 5385, 4268, and 7105 DEGs at the three time points of salt treatment compared to the control were identified, respectively. Several DEGs enriched in plant signal transduction pathways were highly expressed under salt stress, and these genes play an important role in signaling and scavenging of ROS in response to salt stress. Transcript expression in canola roots differed at different stages of salt stress, with the early-stages (2 h) of salt stress mainly related to oxidative stress response and sugar metabolism, while the late-stages (72 h) of salt stress mainly related to transmembrane movement, amino acid metabolism, glycerol metabolism and structural components of the cell wall. Several families of TFs that may be associated with salt tolerance were identified, including ERF, MYB, NAC, WRKY, and bHLH. These results provide a basis for further studies on the regulatory mechanisms of salt stress adaptation in canola.