Safety and immunogenicity of a primary series and booster dose of the meningococcal serogroup B-factor H binding protein vaccine (MenB-FHbp) in healthy children aged 1-9 years: two phase 2 randomised, controlled, observer-blinded studies

Helen S. Marshall, Timo Vesikari, Peter C. Richmond, Jacek Wysocki, Leszek Szenborn, Johannes Beeslaar, Jason D. Maguire, Paul Balmer, Robert O'Neill, Annaliesa S. Anderson, Jean-Louis Pregaldien, Roger Maansson, Han-Qing Jiang, John L. Perez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background The meningococcal serogroup B-factor H binding protein vaccine (MenB-FHbp) is licensed for use in children aged 10 years or older for protection against invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease. Because young children are at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease, MenB-FHbp clinical data in this population are needed. Methods We conducted two phase 2 randomised, controlled, observer-blinded studies including healthy toddlers (age 12-23 months) across 26 Australian, Czech, Finnish, and Polish centres, and older children (age 2-9 years) across 14 Finnish and Polish centres. Exclusion criteria included previous vaccinations against serogroup B meningococcus or hepatitis A virus (HAV), and chronic antibiotic use. Toddlers were randomly allocated (2:1) via an interactive response technology system to receive either 60 mu g or 120 mu g MenB-FHbp or HAV vaccine and saline (control). Older children were randomly allocated (3:1) to receive 120 mu g MenB-FHbp or control, with stratification by age group (2-3 years and 4-9 years). All vaccinations were administered as three doses (0, 2, and 6 months, with only saline given at 2 months in the control group). Toddlers who received 120 mu g MenB-FHbp could receive a 120 mu g booster dose 24 months after the end of the primary series. The percentages of participants with serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) titres at or above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ; all greater than the 1:4 correlate of protection) against four test strains of serogroup B meningococcus 1 month after the third dose (primary immunogenicity endpoint) were measured in the evaluable immunogenicity populations (participants who received the vaccine as randomised, had available and determinate hSBA results, and had no major protocol violations). Not all participants were tested against all strains because of serum sample volume constraints. The frequencies of reactogenicity and adverse events after each dose were recorded in the safety population (all participants who received at least one dose and had safety data available). These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02534935 and NCT02531698) and are completed. Findings Between Aug 31, 2015, and Aug 22, 2016, for the toddler study and between Aug 27, 2015, and March 7, 2016, for the older children study, we enrolled and randomly allocated 396 toddlers (60 mu g MenB-FHbp group n=44; 120 mu g MenB-FHbp group n=220; control group n=132) and 400 older children (120 mu g MenB-FHbp group n=294; control group n=106). 1 month after the third dose, the proportions of participants with hSBA titres at or above the LLOQ ranged across test strains from 85middot0% (95% CI 62middot1-96middot8; 17 of 20 participants) to 100middot0% (82middot4-100middot0; 19 of 19) in toddlers receiving 60 mu g MenB-FHbp, and from 71middot6% (61middot4-80middot4; 68 of 95) to 100middot0% (96middot2-100middot0; 95 of 95) in toddlers receiving 120 mu g MenB-FHbp, and from 79middot1% (71middot2-85middot6; 106 of 134) to 100middot0% (97middot4-100middot0; 139 of 139) in children aged 2-9 years receiving 120 mu g MenB-FHbp. hSBA titres peaked at 1 month after the third primary dose of MenB-FHbp and then declined over time.

24 months after the third dose in the toddler study, the proportions with hSBA titres at or above the LLOQ ranged from 0middot0% (0middot0-17middot6; 0 of 19 participants) to 41middot2% (18middot4-67middot1; seven of 17) in those who received 60 mu g MenB-FHbp and from 3middot7% (0middot8-10middot4; three of 81) to 22middot8% (14middot1-33middot6; 18 of 79) in those who received 120 mu g MenB-FHbp. 1 month after the booster dose in toddlers, the proportions with hSBA titres at or above the LLOQ were higher than at 1 month after the primary series. MenB-FHbp reactogenicity was mostly transient and of mild to moderate severity. Adverse event frequency was similar between the MenB-FHbp and control groups and less frequent following MenB-FHbp booster than following primary doses. Two participants from the toddler study (both from the 120 mu g MenB-FHbp group) and four from the older children study (three from the 120 mu g MenB-FHbp group and one from the control group) were withdrawn from the study because of adverse events. Interpretation MenB-FHbp was well tolerated and induced protective immune responses in a high proportion of participants. These findings support a favourable MenB-FHbp immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile in young children, a population at increased risk of adverse invasive meningococcal disease outcomes. Funding Pfizer. Crown Copyright (c) 2022 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-116
Number of pages14
JournalLancet Infectious Diseases
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Safety and immunogenicity of a primary series and booster dose of the meningococcal serogroup B-factor H binding protein vaccine (MenB-FHbp) in healthy children aged 1-9 years: two phase 2 randomised, controlled, observer-blinded studies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this