Objectives: Assess Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization in healthy Australian adults receiving an investigational S. aureus 3-antigen vaccine (SA3Ag). Methods: In this phase 1, double-blind, sponsor-unblinded study, participants were randomized to receive a single dose (1 of 3 dose levels) of SA3Ag or placebo and a booster dose or placebo at 6 months. S. aureus isolates from nasal, perineal, and oropharyngeal swabs before and through 12 months post-vaccination were identified. Results: Baseline S. aureus colonization prevalence was 30.6% (any site), with nasal carriage (27.0%) more common than oropharyngeal/perineal (3.2% each). Following initial vaccination (low-dose: 102; mid-dose: 101; high-dose: 101; placebo: 102) and booster (low-dose: 45; mid-dose: 44; high-dose: 27; placebo: 181), placebo and SA3Ag groups showed similar S. aureus carriage through 12 months. Most colonized participants (74.0%) were colonized by single spa types. Placebo and SA3Ag groups had similar persistence of colonization, with 19.6–30.7% due to single spa types. Acquisition was observed in mid- and high-dose recipients (∼20%) and low-dose and placebo recipients (∼12%). Vaccination resulted in substantial increases in antibodies to all 3 antigens, irrespective of carriage status. Conclusions: Based on descriptive analyses of this small study, SA3Ag vaccination did not impact S. aureus acquisition or carriage. Carriage status did not impact antibody responses to SA3Ag.