Running biomechanics and lower limb strength associated with prior hamstring injury

J.C.M. Lee, Siobhan Reid, Bruce Elliott, David Lloyd

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    42 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Purpose: Hamstrings injury/reinjury is common, but functional reasons for this remain unclear. This study identified bilateral differences in swing phase running biomechanics and isokinetic strength, between the previously hamstring-injured and uninjured limbs of male athletes involved in sprint-based sports.Methods: Athletes, injury-free during testing, underwent three-dimensional motion analyses to determine bilateral joint kinematics and kinetics during submaximal sprinting. Various hip and knee isokinetic strength tests were performed bilaterally using a Biodex dynamometer. Peak torque (PT) and total work (TW; normalized to body mass) were collected isokinetically from concentric hamstrings (CH), concentric quadriceps (CQ), concentric hip flexors (CHF), and eccentric hamstrings (EH). Three PT and TW ratios were created, namely, CH/CQ, EH/CQ, and EH/CHF, and were compared between the previously injured and uninjured limbs.Results: Lower limb swing phase kinematics and kinetics were similar. Only peak hip flexion angle in late swing was significantly reduced (1.9°) in the previously injured limb. EH PT was decreased (26.2 N·m·kg-1) and occurred at shorter hamstring lengths on the previously injured side, whereas CQ TW was increased by 13.6 J·kg-1. EH/CQ and EH/CHF ratios for PT and TW were reduced on the previously injured limbs.Conclusions: Although swing phase biomechanics of submaximal sprinting were similar between limbs, the previously injured hamstrings did display significant weakness eccentrically. Residual eccentric weakness may predispose this muscle group to reinjury during late swing, compared with the uninjured limb, because the functional eccentric demand on both limbs was similar. Furthermore, the EH/CHF ratios may better reflect muscle function during sprinting, having the potential to influence rehabilitation to prevent reinjury.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1942-1951
    JournalMedicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
    Volume41
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

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    Biomechanical Phenomena
    Running
    Lower Extremity
    Extremities
    Hip
    Torque
    Wounds and Injuries
    Athletes
    Muscles
    Sports
    Knee
    Rehabilitation
    Joints

    Cite this

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    title = "Running biomechanics and lower limb strength associated with prior hamstring injury",
    abstract = "Purpose: Hamstrings injury/reinjury is common, but functional reasons for this remain unclear. This study identified bilateral differences in swing phase running biomechanics and isokinetic strength, between the previously hamstring-injured and uninjured limbs of male athletes involved in sprint-based sports.Methods: Athletes, injury-free during testing, underwent three-dimensional motion analyses to determine bilateral joint kinematics and kinetics during submaximal sprinting. Various hip and knee isokinetic strength tests were performed bilaterally using a Biodex dynamometer. Peak torque (PT) and total work (TW; normalized to body mass) were collected isokinetically from concentric hamstrings (CH), concentric quadriceps (CQ), concentric hip flexors (CHF), and eccentric hamstrings (EH). Three PT and TW ratios were created, namely, CH/CQ, EH/CQ, and EH/CHF, and were compared between the previously injured and uninjured limbs.Results: Lower limb swing phase kinematics and kinetics were similar. Only peak hip flexion angle in late swing was significantly reduced (1.9°) in the previously injured limb. EH PT was decreased (26.2 N·m·kg-1) and occurred at shorter hamstring lengths on the previously injured side, whereas CQ TW was increased by 13.6 J·kg-1. EH/CQ and EH/CHF ratios for PT and TW were reduced on the previously injured limbs.Conclusions: Although swing phase biomechanics of submaximal sprinting were similar between limbs, the previously injured hamstrings did display significant weakness eccentrically. Residual eccentric weakness may predispose this muscle group to reinjury during late swing, compared with the uninjured limb, because the functional eccentric demand on both limbs was similar. Furthermore, the EH/CHF ratios may better reflect muscle function during sprinting, having the potential to influence rehabilitation to prevent reinjury.",
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    volume = "41",
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    Running biomechanics and lower limb strength associated with prior hamstring injury. / Lee, J.C.M.; Reid, Siobhan; Elliott, Bruce; Lloyd, David.

    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2009, p. 1942-1951.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Running biomechanics and lower limb strength associated with prior hamstring injury

    AU - Lee, J.C.M.

    AU - Reid, Siobhan

    AU - Elliott, Bruce

    AU - Lloyd, David

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - Purpose: Hamstrings injury/reinjury is common, but functional reasons for this remain unclear. This study identified bilateral differences in swing phase running biomechanics and isokinetic strength, between the previously hamstring-injured and uninjured limbs of male athletes involved in sprint-based sports.Methods: Athletes, injury-free during testing, underwent three-dimensional motion analyses to determine bilateral joint kinematics and kinetics during submaximal sprinting. Various hip and knee isokinetic strength tests were performed bilaterally using a Biodex dynamometer. Peak torque (PT) and total work (TW; normalized to body mass) were collected isokinetically from concentric hamstrings (CH), concentric quadriceps (CQ), concentric hip flexors (CHF), and eccentric hamstrings (EH). Three PT and TW ratios were created, namely, CH/CQ, EH/CQ, and EH/CHF, and were compared between the previously injured and uninjured limbs.Results: Lower limb swing phase kinematics and kinetics were similar. Only peak hip flexion angle in late swing was significantly reduced (1.9°) in the previously injured limb. EH PT was decreased (26.2 N·m·kg-1) and occurred at shorter hamstring lengths on the previously injured side, whereas CQ TW was increased by 13.6 J·kg-1. EH/CQ and EH/CHF ratios for PT and TW were reduced on the previously injured limbs.Conclusions: Although swing phase biomechanics of submaximal sprinting were similar between limbs, the previously injured hamstrings did display significant weakness eccentrically. Residual eccentric weakness may predispose this muscle group to reinjury during late swing, compared with the uninjured limb, because the functional eccentric demand on both limbs was similar. Furthermore, the EH/CHF ratios may better reflect muscle function during sprinting, having the potential to influence rehabilitation to prevent reinjury.

    AB - Purpose: Hamstrings injury/reinjury is common, but functional reasons for this remain unclear. This study identified bilateral differences in swing phase running biomechanics and isokinetic strength, between the previously hamstring-injured and uninjured limbs of male athletes involved in sprint-based sports.Methods: Athletes, injury-free during testing, underwent three-dimensional motion analyses to determine bilateral joint kinematics and kinetics during submaximal sprinting. Various hip and knee isokinetic strength tests were performed bilaterally using a Biodex dynamometer. Peak torque (PT) and total work (TW; normalized to body mass) were collected isokinetically from concentric hamstrings (CH), concentric quadriceps (CQ), concentric hip flexors (CHF), and eccentric hamstrings (EH). Three PT and TW ratios were created, namely, CH/CQ, EH/CQ, and EH/CHF, and were compared between the previously injured and uninjured limbs.Results: Lower limb swing phase kinematics and kinetics were similar. Only peak hip flexion angle in late swing was significantly reduced (1.9°) in the previously injured limb. EH PT was decreased (26.2 N·m·kg-1) and occurred at shorter hamstring lengths on the previously injured side, whereas CQ TW was increased by 13.6 J·kg-1. EH/CQ and EH/CHF ratios for PT and TW were reduced on the previously injured limbs.Conclusions: Although swing phase biomechanics of submaximal sprinting were similar between limbs, the previously injured hamstrings did display significant weakness eccentrically. Residual eccentric weakness may predispose this muscle group to reinjury during late swing, compared with the uninjured limb, because the functional eccentric demand on both limbs was similar. Furthermore, the EH/CHF ratios may better reflect muscle function during sprinting, having the potential to influence rehabilitation to prevent reinjury.

    U2 - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a55200

    DO - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a55200

    M3 - Article

    VL - 41

    SP - 1942

    EP - 1951

    JO - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

    JF - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

    SN - 0195-9131

    IS - 10

    ER -