Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is the third major locus affecting risk of type I diabetes (T1D), after HLA-DR/DQ and INS. The most associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2476601, has a C->T variant and results in an arginine (R) to tryptophan (W) amino acid change at position 620. To assess whether this, or other specific variants, are responsible for T1D risk, the Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium analyzed 28 PTPN22 SNPs in 2295 affected sib-pair (ASP) families. Transmission Disequilibrium Test analyses of haplotypes revealed that all three haplotypes with a T allele at rs2476601 were overtransmitted to affected children, and two of these three haplotypes showed statistically significant overtransmission (P=0.003 to P=5.9E-12). Another haplotype had decreased transmission to affected children (P=3.5E-05). All haplotypes containing the rs2476601 T allele were identical for all SNPs across PTPN22 and only varied at centromeric SNPs. When considering rs2476601 ‘C’ founder chromosomes, a second haplotype (AGGGGC) centromeric of PTPN22 in the C1orf178 region was associated with protection from T1D (odds ratio=0.81, P=0.0005). This novel finding requires replication in independent populations. We conclude the major association of PTPN22 with T1D is likely due to the recognized non-synonymous SNP rs2476601 (R620W).