Root traits can be exploited to increase the physiological efficiency of crop water use under drought. Root length, root hairs, root branching, root diameter, and root proliferation rate are genetically defined traits that can help to improve the water productivity potential of crops. Recently, high-throughput phenotyping techniques/platforms have been used to screen the germplasm of major cool-season grain legumes for root traits and their impact on different physiological processes, including nutrient uptake and yield potential. Advances in omics approaches have led to the dissection of genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic structures of these traits. This knowledge facilitates breeders to improve the water productivity and nutrient uptake of cultivars under limited soil moisture conditions in major cool-season grain legumes that usually face terminal drought. This review discusses the advances in root traits and their potential for developing drought-tolerant cultivars in cool-season grain legumes.