Crop genotypes differ in their tolerance to micronutrient-deficient soils, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This paper reviews information on mechanisms of tolerance to Zn and Mn deficiency, concentrating on plant-induced changes in chemistry and biology of rhizosphere that alter availability of Zn and Mn.When grown under conditions of Zn deficiency, wheat genotypes more tolerant of Zn deficiency released greater amounts of phytosiderophore, 2'-deoxymugineic acid, than the sensitive genotypes. In addition, Zn deficiency increased numbers of fluorescent pseudomonads in rhizosphere of all wheat genotypes tested, but the effect was particularly obvious for genotypes tolerant of Zn deficiency.Rhizosphere of wheat genotypes contained an increased proportion of Mn reducers under Mn-deficiency compared to Mn-sufficiency conditions. When grown in soils of low Mn availability, some wheat genotypes tolerant of Mn deficiency (like cv. Aroona) had a greater ratio of Mn-reducers to Mn-oxidisers in the rhizosphere compared to the sensitive genotypes. In contrast, microflora in the rhizosphere of other wheat genotypes tolerant of Mn deficiency (like C8MM) did not show the same response as Aroona. It therefore appears that different mechanisms may underlie the expression of tolerance to Mn deficiency in wheat genotypes.It is concluded that wheat genotypes tolerant of Zn or Mn deficiency have a capacity to alter chemical and biological properties of the rhizosphere, thus increasing availability of critical micronutrients.
|Plant and Soil: An International Journal on Plant-Soil Relationships
|Published - 1997