Unknown measurement disturbances and correlated noise caused by jitter or vibration phenomena during spacecraft operation and the complex external environment are important topics for spacecraft attitude estimation. This paper studies the problem of spacecraft attitude estimation for nonlinear systems with multiplicative noises, unknown measurement disturbances and correlated noises. In addition, a two-step prediction framework is used to complete the noise decoupling. This paper aims to design a robust filter that minimizes the upper bound of the prediction error covariance and estimation error covariance in the presence of multiplicative noises, correlated noises and unknown measurement disturbances. The prediction gain and filtering gain of the robust filter are designed to minimize the upper bound. Finally, the simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed filter.