A case-control study based on routinely collected data for a West Australian (WA) cohort of births born 1980-94 inclusive was used to identify potential risk factors for the foot deformity isolated talipes equinovarus.Race and sex were identified as risk factors and risk modifiers of the condition in WA infants. In comparison with their female counterparts, Aboriginal males were at greater risk of the deformity than Caucasian males (odd ratio [OR] 7.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.68, 21.12 vs. OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.24, 2.15 respectively). Sex-specific risk estimates of the deformity showed that Aboriginal males were at more than four times the risk of Caucasian males (OR 4.27, 95% CI 2.30, 8.25 respectively), but the risk amongst Aboriginal females was not dissimilar to the risk amongst Caucasian females (OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.49, 2.45).Intrauterine constraint of the fetus was not found to be an important contributing factor to the deformity after accounting for the effect of all risk factors modelled in multivariable analyses. Indicators of intrauterine constraint including prolonged gestation, high infant birthweight, young maternal age (< 20 years) and breech presentation were not associated with excess numbers of isolated talipes equinovarus cases.Limited numbers of cases associated with other indicators of intrauterine constraint, including the specific categories of short maternal stature and a twin pregnancy prevented definitive conclusions regarding their association with the deformity. Improved data quality for gestational age estimates and oligohydramnios status are required before determining the prenatal risk impact of season of conception and of reduced amniotic fluid levels, respectively, on the occurrence of the deformity.
Carey, M., Mylvaganam, A., Rouse, I., & Bower, C. (2005). Risk factors for isolated talipes equinovarus in Western Australia, 1980-1994. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 19(3), 238-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2005.00648.x