Intensive and continuous mining of coal resources in China implies their gradual exhaustion, especially in the eastern regions. While some mines face closure, others have to extract residual coal resources under buildings, water bodies, and industrial sites. Thus, safe and efficient mining of the residual coal resources requires innovative techniques, which would account for the particular site's geological conditions. In this study, two schemes of roadway mining with cemented paste backfilling (RMCPB) and strip mining are put forward. After analyzing the type, construction, and protection standard of the buildings, the probability integration method and the prediction model are used to assess the surface subsidence and deformation. The research results show that both schemes can control the surface deformation to a certain extent, but RMCPB combines the advantages of a high coal recovery rate and disposal of gangue waste. According to the surface subsidence predicted and measured data, the RMCPB method can effectively control the surface subsidence, deformation, and buildings' safety. It also yields significant economic and environmental benefits.