Rice leaf hydrophobicity and gas films are conferred by a wax synthesis gene (LGF1) and contribute to flood tolerance

Yusuke Kurokawa, Keisuke Nagai, Phung Danh Huan, Kousuke Shimazaki, Huangqi Qu, Yoshinao Mori, Yosuke Toda, Takeshi Kuroha, Nagao Hayashi, Saori Aiga, Jun Ichi Itoh, Atsushi Yoshimura, Yuko Sasaki-Sekimoto, Hiroyuki Ohta, Mie Shimojima, Al Imran Malik, Ole Pedersen, Timothy David Colmer, Motoyuki Ashikari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Floods impede gas (O2 and CO2) exchange between plants and the environment. A mechanism to enhance plant gas exchange under water comprises gas films on hydrophobic leaves, but the genetic regulation of this mechanism is unknown. We used a rice mutant (dripping wet leaf 7, drp7) which does not retain gas films on leaves, and its wild-type (Kinmaze), in gene discovery for this trait. Gene complementation was tested in transgenic lines. Functional properties of leaves as related to gas film retention and underwater photosynthesis were evaluated. Leaf Gas Film 1 (LGF1) was identified as the gene determining leaf gas films. LGF1 regulates C30 primary alcohol synthesis, which is necessary for abundant epicuticular wax platelets, leaf hydrophobicity and gas films on submerged leaves. This trait enhanced underwater photosynthesis 8.2-fold and contributes to submergence tolerance. Gene function was verified by a complementation test of LGF1 expressed in the drp7 mutant background, which restored C30 primary alcohol synthesis, wax platelet abundance, leaf hydrophobicity, gas film retention, and underwater photosynthesis. The discovery of LGF1 provides an opportunity to better understand variation amongst rice genotypes for gas film retention ability and to target various alleles in breeding for improved submergence tolerance for yield stability in flood-prone areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1558-1569
Number of pages12
JournalNew Phytologist
Volume218
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018

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Waxes
hydrophobicity
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
waxes
films (materials)
Gases
gases
rice
synthesis
Genes
leaves
genes
Photosynthesis
submergence
photosynthesis
Oryza
alcohols
Blood Platelets
Alcohols
Genetic Complementation Test

Cite this

Kurokawa, Y., Nagai, K., Huan, P. D., Shimazaki, K., Qu, H., Mori, Y., ... Ashikari, M. (2018). Rice leaf hydrophobicity and gas films are conferred by a wax synthesis gene (LGF1) and contribute to flood tolerance. New Phytologist, 218(4), 1558-1569. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15070
Kurokawa, Yusuke ; Nagai, Keisuke ; Huan, Phung Danh ; Shimazaki, Kousuke ; Qu, Huangqi ; Mori, Yoshinao ; Toda, Yosuke ; Kuroha, Takeshi ; Hayashi, Nagao ; Aiga, Saori ; Itoh, Jun Ichi ; Yoshimura, Atsushi ; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko ; Ohta, Hiroyuki ; Shimojima, Mie ; Malik, Al Imran ; Pedersen, Ole ; Colmer, Timothy David ; Ashikari, Motoyuki. / Rice leaf hydrophobicity and gas films are conferred by a wax synthesis gene (LGF1) and contribute to flood tolerance. In: New Phytologist. 2018 ; Vol. 218, No. 4. pp. 1558-1569.
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abstract = "Floods impede gas (O2 and CO2) exchange between plants and the environment. A mechanism to enhance plant gas exchange under water comprises gas films on hydrophobic leaves, but the genetic regulation of this mechanism is unknown. We used a rice mutant (dripping wet leaf 7, drp7) which does not retain gas films on leaves, and its wild-type (Kinmaze), in gene discovery for this trait. Gene complementation was tested in transgenic lines. Functional properties of leaves as related to gas film retention and underwater photosynthesis were evaluated. Leaf Gas Film 1 (LGF1) was identified as the gene determining leaf gas films. LGF1 regulates C30 primary alcohol synthesis, which is necessary for abundant epicuticular wax platelets, leaf hydrophobicity and gas films on submerged leaves. This trait enhanced underwater photosynthesis 8.2-fold and contributes to submergence tolerance. Gene function was verified by a complementation test of LGF1 expressed in the drp7 mutant background, which restored C30 primary alcohol synthesis, wax platelet abundance, leaf hydrophobicity, gas film retention, and underwater photosynthesis. The discovery of LGF1 provides an opportunity to better understand variation amongst rice genotypes for gas film retention ability and to target various alleles in breeding for improved submergence tolerance for yield stability in flood-prone areas.",
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author = "Yusuke Kurokawa and Keisuke Nagai and Huan, {Phung Danh} and Kousuke Shimazaki and Huangqi Qu and Yoshinao Mori and Yosuke Toda and Takeshi Kuroha and Nagao Hayashi and Saori Aiga and Itoh, {Jun Ichi} and Atsushi Yoshimura and Yuko Sasaki-Sekimoto and Hiroyuki Ohta and Mie Shimojima and Malik, {Al Imran} and Ole Pedersen and Colmer, {Timothy David} and Motoyuki Ashikari",
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Kurokawa, Y, Nagai, K, Huan, PD, Shimazaki, K, Qu, H, Mori, Y, Toda, Y, Kuroha, T, Hayashi, N, Aiga, S, Itoh, JI, Yoshimura, A, Sasaki-Sekimoto, Y, Ohta, H, Shimojima, M, Malik, AI, Pedersen, O, Colmer, TD & Ashikari, M 2018, 'Rice leaf hydrophobicity and gas films are conferred by a wax synthesis gene (LGF1) and contribute to flood tolerance' New Phytologist, vol. 218, no. 4, pp. 1558-1569. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15070

Rice leaf hydrophobicity and gas films are conferred by a wax synthesis gene (LGF1) and contribute to flood tolerance. / Kurokawa, Yusuke; Nagai, Keisuke; Huan, Phung Danh; Shimazaki, Kousuke; Qu, Huangqi; Mori, Yoshinao; Toda, Yosuke; Kuroha, Takeshi; Hayashi, Nagao; Aiga, Saori; Itoh, Jun Ichi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shimojima, Mie; Malik, Al Imran; Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy David; Ashikari, Motoyuki.

In: New Phytologist, Vol. 218, No. 4, 01.06.2018, p. 1558-1569.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Rice leaf hydrophobicity and gas films are conferred by a wax synthesis gene (LGF1) and contribute to flood tolerance

AU - Kurokawa, Yusuke

AU - Nagai, Keisuke

AU - Huan, Phung Danh

AU - Shimazaki, Kousuke

AU - Qu, Huangqi

AU - Mori, Yoshinao

AU - Toda, Yosuke

AU - Kuroha, Takeshi

AU - Hayashi, Nagao

AU - Aiga, Saori

AU - Itoh, Jun Ichi

AU - Yoshimura, Atsushi

AU - Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko

AU - Ohta, Hiroyuki

AU - Shimojima, Mie

AU - Malik, Al Imran

AU - Pedersen, Ole

AU - Colmer, Timothy David

AU - Ashikari, Motoyuki

PY - 2018/6/1

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N2 - Floods impede gas (O2 and CO2) exchange between plants and the environment. A mechanism to enhance plant gas exchange under water comprises gas films on hydrophobic leaves, but the genetic regulation of this mechanism is unknown. We used a rice mutant (dripping wet leaf 7, drp7) which does not retain gas films on leaves, and its wild-type (Kinmaze), in gene discovery for this trait. Gene complementation was tested in transgenic lines. Functional properties of leaves as related to gas film retention and underwater photosynthesis were evaluated. Leaf Gas Film 1 (LGF1) was identified as the gene determining leaf gas films. LGF1 regulates C30 primary alcohol synthesis, which is necessary for abundant epicuticular wax platelets, leaf hydrophobicity and gas films on submerged leaves. This trait enhanced underwater photosynthesis 8.2-fold and contributes to submergence tolerance. Gene function was verified by a complementation test of LGF1 expressed in the drp7 mutant background, which restored C30 primary alcohol synthesis, wax platelet abundance, leaf hydrophobicity, gas film retention, and underwater photosynthesis. The discovery of LGF1 provides an opportunity to better understand variation amongst rice genotypes for gas film retention ability and to target various alleles in breeding for improved submergence tolerance for yield stability in flood-prone areas.

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KW - air film

KW - epicuticular waxes

KW - Oryza sativa

KW - primary alcohol

KW - submergence tolerance

KW - superhydrophobic

KW - underwater photosynthesis

KW - wax biosynthesis

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