Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable heart condition that remains endemic among vulnerable groups in many countries. After a period of relative neglect, there has been a resurging interest in RHD worldwide over the past decade. In this Scientific Expert Panel, the authors summarize recent advances in the science of RHD and sketch out priorities for current action and future research. Key questions for laboratory research into disease pathogenesis and epidemiological research on the burden of disease are identified. The authors present a variety of pressing clinical research questions on optimal RHD prevention and advanced care. In addition, they propose a policy and implementation research agenda that can help translate current evidence into tangible action. The authors maintain that, despite knowledge gaps, there is sufficient evidence for national and global action on RHD, and they argue that RHD is a model for strengthening health systems to address other cardiovascular diseases in limited-resource countries.