Rheology of protic ionic liquids and their mixtures

J. A. Smith, Grant B. Webber, Gregory G. Warr, Rob Atkin

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92 Citations (Scopus)


The rheological properties of five pure protic ionic liquids (ILs), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), propylammonium nitrate (PAN), ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN), ethylammonium formate (EAF), and dimethylethylammonium formate (DMEAF), are characterized and interpreted by considering the effects of both the H-bond network and the solvophobic nanostructure of the liquids. The results demonstrate that these effects are not, however, independent or simply additive. At 20 C, EtAN has the highest zero shear viscosity of 156.1 mPa·s, followed by PAN (89.3 mPa·s), EAN (35.9 mPa·s), EAF (23.1 mPa·s), and DMEAF (9.8 mPa·s). The primary ammonium ILs behave as Newtonian fluids at low shear rates but shear thin at high shear. Fits to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann model reveal that nanostructure is not affected appreciably by temperature and that all the ILs studied are of intermediate fragility. The rheology of binary mixtures of these ILs was analyzed and used to demonstrate fundamental differences in the way IL cations and anions interact. IL mixtures containing both nitrate and formate anions resist flow more strongly than the pure liquids, which is a consequence of the difference in hydrogen bonding capacity of the anions. Mixing cations can give rise to complex behavior due to the offsetting effects of hydrogen bonding and solvophobic nanostructure formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13930-13935
Number of pages6
JournalThe Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B: Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical
Issue number44
Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes


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